James Lovelock

James Lovelock

James Lovelock is the originator of the Gaia Hypothesis, that the biosphere is a self-regulating entity. Lovelock was also the inventor of the microwave oven and electron capture device.


James Lovelock is an independent scientist and environmentalist who has contributed to discoveries and inventions of the 20th century. He is commonly quoted as “the most important scientific thinker” or the “godfather of global warming” (The Independent).

Academic Life

James Ephraim Lovelock was born on 26 July 1919 in Letchworth, Garden City in Hertfordshire, England. Raised by parents who firmly believed in education, he first enrolled in evening courses at Birbeck College and eventually managed to pay for his full-time studies in chemistry at Manchester University where he graduated in 1941. Shortly after the war, he received a PhD in medicine at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine partly based on his work at Harvard Hospital in Salisbury at the Common Cold Research Unit.

In 1954 he conducted research at Harvard University in Boston thanks to the Rockefeller Travelling Fellowship in Medicine, and then went to Yale University to further his studies a few years later. Between 1961 and 1964, he collaborated on several occasions with NASA on projects related to planet exploration (chemical analysis of air particles) all while teaching chemistry at Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.

Since 1964, he has worked as an independent scientist, working on missions for a variety of organisations and agencies across the world. His contributions include the discovery and air measurement of pollution-related molecules (CFC), highlighting the dangerous dispersion of pesticide residues and the invention (contested) of the microwave oven among many others.

Professional Life: an Independent Scientist

James Lovelock has contributed to a variety of scientific fields such as medicine, biology and geophysiology (the systems science of Earth). With hundreds of scientific papers and dozens of patents, his work has earned him the title of “one of the greatest scientists of his generation” (Richard Branson). His inventions have revealed the impact of industrialisation and pollution on Earth’s atmosphere and largely contributed to raising awareness about the environment.

Most of all, Lovelock is famous for his Gaia Hypothesis, which later became the Gaia Theory, topic on which he has written seven books over the past 30 years. He first formulated his famous Gaia Hypothesis in the 1960s while working with NASA on life detection instruments for Mars missions.

In his life as an independent scientist, he was awarded several medals and prizes in the US, the UK, Japan, Sweden and the Netherlands for his achievements as a biologist, meteorologist, chemist and inventor. These include:

-         The American Chemical Society's Award for Chromatography (1980)

-         The Silver Medal and Prize of the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (1986)

-         The Norbert Gerbier Prize of the World Meteorological Association (1988)

-         The Amsterdam Prize for the Environment (1990)

In the early 2000s, as he was retiring as a practicing scientist, James Lovelock was made Companion of Honour by Her Majestey the Queen and was later named one of the world’s top 100 leading intellectuals. For the past 10 years, Lovelock has become a full-time thinker, regularly publishing books on the (updated) Gaia Theory, climate change and global warming.

James Lovelock & the Gaia Theory

The Gaia hypothesis suggests seeing Earth as a complex interacting system between organic and non-organic elements that form a whole organism that self-regulates in order to sustain life. This was sometimes related to the scientific approach to the human body, made of cells and bacteria of very different types (species) that interact in a complex system to sustain a whole organism. In this case, the biosphere – the sum of all ecosystems and living organisms – would attempt to regulate the environment on Earth in order to sustain life. His vision originated from the observation of Mars’s excessively balanced atmosphere as opposed to Earth’s dynamic systems which underline the presence and impact of a biosphere on our planet.

His hypothesis was widely criticised as too simplistic by many Darwinian scientists who contended that Lovelock was clouded by his own convictions and beliefs which led to wishful thinking. However, using ever-more sophisticated computer models for three decades, James Lovelock has been able to show that his Gaia Theory – although commonly simplified as “the Earth is a whole living organism” – can indeed be a reliable model to understanding our planet’s ecosystem.

Recently, Lovelock has admitted that global warming is happening much slower than earlier computer models had predicted and that he had been rather alarmist in the past. He now considers himself a sceptic of the potential damage global warming can cause, although “not a denier”. Even today, he remains an expert at bringing environmental topics into the limelight.


  • Gaia: a New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford University Press, 1979)
  • Great Extinction (Lovelock, James; Michael Allaby, Doubleday, 1983)
  • The Greening of Mars (Lovelock, James; Michael Allaby, Doubleday, 1984)
  • The Ages of Gaia (W. W. Norton, 1988)
  • Gaia: the Practical Science of Planetary Medicine (Gaia Books, 1991 - Oxford University Press 2001)
  • Homage to Gaia: Life of an Independent Scientist (Oxford University Press, 2000)
  • Gaia: Medicine for an Ailing Planet (Gaia Books, 2005)
  • The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back – and How We Can Still Save Humanity (Allen Lane, 2006)
  • The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning – Enjoy it While You Can (Allen Lane, 2009)